In addition to the comprehensive programs, most of the courses
within these programs can
be taken on an individual basis by persons not enrolled in the entire program. Coursework covers the lifecycle of clinical research
including planning of observational and experimental study designs, project implementation, measurement, data management, biostatistical analysis
and interpretation, and scientific and public dissemination. While the methods taught in these courses are applicable to a wide variety of
subject matter-specific research questions, specialized courses are also available that demonstrate how these methods are applied in particular fields
(e.g., cancer and aging).